Maratha conquests under Shivaji
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Battle of Pratapgad
Main article: Battle of Pratapgad
Battle of Kolhapur
Main article: Battle of Kolhapur
The second Maratha victory came on the battle of Kolhapur fought on 28 November 1655 .
Battle of Pavan Khind
Main article: Battle of Pavan Khind
Adil Shah sent an Abyssinian general of repute, Siddi Jauhar in 1660. In this battle Adil Shahi & Mughal forces jointly attacked Marathas from north & south directions respectively. Shivaji took up a position at Panhala fort, near present-day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Over 200 Marathas died in the battle, yet, they took 1,400 enemy soldiers with them. However Panhala was surrendered to Siddi Jauhar, Shivaji took revenge later.
Battle of Chakan
Main article: Battle of Chakan
Conquest of Konkan
Main article: Battle of Umberkhind
An Uzbek general, Kartalab Khan, was sent on a mission to attack and reduce Shivaji's forts in the Konkan on 3 February 1661. He left Pune with 30,000 troops. This time the Mughals did not march openly, since they wanted to surprise Shivaji.He captured Lohagad and Rajmachi forts on his way to Konkan But Shivaji took them by surprise at a pass known as Umber Khind, near present-day Khalapur,and attacked them from all sides. Shivaji got enough arms and ammunition for his next battle.
Sacking of Surat
Main article: Battle of Surat
In the Battle of Surat, Shivaji challenged Mughal Fauzdar of Surat. The town was attacked and put under sack for nearly 3 weeks, in which the Maratha army looted all possible wealth from Mughal and Portuguese trading centers.
Battle of Purandar
Main article: Battle of Purandar
The Battle of Purandar was fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire in 1665. The Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, sent his generals Dilir Khan and Jai Singh to besiege Shivaji's fortress at Purandar. After Mughal forces killed Maratha General Murar Baji Prabhu on June 2, 1665, Shivaji surrendered and gave up 23 of his fortresses. The battle resulted in a Mughal victory. Most of fortresses were recaptured by Marathas.
Battle of Sinhagad
Main article: Battle of Sinhagad
One fort on the outskirts of Pune, Kondana, was still under the control of a Mughal general. On 4 February 1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana. In the Battle of Sinhagad, the fort was scaled during the dead of the night, but victory was secured with loss of Tanaji.
Battle of Kalyan
Main article: Battle of Kalyan
The Battle of Kalyan occurred between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire between 1682 and 1683. Bahadur Khan of the Mughal Empire defeated the Maratha army and took over Kalyan. The Marathas attempted a counter offensive, but failed and they were repulsed by Mughal forces.
Battle of Bhupalgarh
Main article: Battle of Bhupalgarh
The Battle of Bhupalgarh occurred between the Mughal and Maratha empires in 1679. The battle resulted in the razing of the fort of Bhupalgarh and subsequent defeat of the Marathas under Shivaji by the Mughal forces.
Battle of Sangamner
Main article: Battle of Sangamner
The Battle of Sangamner was fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire in 1679. This was the last battle in which the Maratha King Shivaji fought. The Mughals had attacked Shivaji when he was returning from a sack on Jalna. The Marathas engaged in battle with the Mughals for three days until Maratha General, Sidhoji Nimbalkar was killed alongside 2,000 Maratha soldiers. The Marathas were largely decimated, however Shivaji managed to flee with 500 men.
Battle of Salher
Main article: Battle of Salher
The fort of Salher dominated the route between Surat and the realms of Shivaji. There was a fierce battle between the Marathas and the Mughal army. It was one of the earliest face to face battles fought by Marathas against the Mughals. The Marathas defeated the Mughals.
Battle of Nesari
Main article: Prataprao Gujar
Balol Khan was sent by Adil Shah to get rid of Shivaji. So, Shivaji sent Prataprao Gujar (the then Commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces) to take care of him. This was late 1673 or 1674.
At the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India with a massive force of 50,000 (30,000 cavalry & 20,000 infantry). He defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Jinji in modern-day Tamil Nadu. He also signed a friendship treaty with the Kutubshah of Golconda. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war.